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Texas Education Code (TEC) §38.003 defines dyslexia in the following way:
(1) “Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.
(2) “Related disorders” include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such as developmental auditory imperceptions, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability.
The International Dyslexia Association defines “dyslexia” in the following way:
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
(Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, November 12, 2002)
Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word reading, reading fluency, and spelling. Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected for the student’s age and educational level and are not primarily the result of language difference factors. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.
The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
It is important to note that individuals demonstrate differences in degree of impairment.
The reading/spelling characteristics are most often associated with the following:
Consequences of dyslexia may include the following:
Sources for Characteristics and Consequences of Dyslexia
Branum-Martin, L., Fletcher, J. M., & Stuebing, K. K. (2013). Classification and identification of reading and math disabilities: The special case of comorbidity. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 12, 906–915.
Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Moats, L. C., Carreker, S., Davis, R., Meisel, P., Spear-Swerling, L., & Wilson, B. (2010). Knowledge and practice standards for teachers of reading. The International Dyslexia Association, Professional Standards and Practices Committee.
Moats, L. C., & Dakin, K. E. (2008). Basic facts about dyslexia and other reading problems. Baltimore, MD: The International Dyslexia Association.
Texas Education Agency (TEA) Dyslexia and Related Disorders
Appendix A: Questions and Answers- Updated August 2023
Anexo A: Preguntas y respuestas - Actualizado en agosto de 2023
Overview of Special Education for Parents
Información general para los padres sobre la educación especial
Texas SPED Support
Dyslexia Handbook 2021 Update
Actualización del manual de dislexia 2021
Texas Education Agency Dyslexia Handbook
Region 8 Dyslexia
Texas Talking Books
International Dyslexia Association
The Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity
Video What is Dyslexia?
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