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Cold Weather 

In most instances, the activity itself enables the athlete to function physically in a normal manner. However, inadequate clothing, improper warm-up, and a high chill factor can form a triad that can lead to an injury. Athletes also need to replace fluids lost. Dehydration causes reduced blood volume, which means less fluid is available for warming the tissues. Road conditions should be checked to make sure it is safe to travel to and from practice and/or competition.

Appropriate clothing includes dressing in layers that can easily be removed or added. The clothes should be waterproof, windproof and still allow sweat to evaporate. It is advisable to add a layer of protective clothing for every 5mph of wind in temperatures of less than 32°F. The head and neck areas should be covered because 65% of the heat produced by the body is lost through radiation. This loss occurs most often from the head and neck areas. 20% is lost through evaporation and the rest is from the respiratory tract.

An injury occurs when the athlete may fail to warm up sufficiently or may become chilled because of relative inactivity for varying periods of time demanded by the particular sport either during competition or training. The athlete should put warm-ups on during times of inactivity. 

The chill factor plays a big role in outside activity. Dampness and wetness further increase the risk of hypothermia. The combination of cold, wind, and dampness can create an environment that predisposes the athlete to hypothermia. 

Please use your best judgment on exercising in the cold and make sure your athletes are dressed appropriately. Any questions please ask 903-243-0746.

Lightning Safety 

Lightning may be the most frequently encountered severe storm hazard endangering physically active people each year. Millions of lightning flashes strike the ground annually in the United States, causing nearly 100 deaths and 400 injuries. Three quarters of all lightning casualties occur between May and September, and nearly four fifths occur between 10:00 am and 7:00 pm, which coincides with the hours for most athletic events. 
Recommendations for Lightning Safety 
1. Establish a chain of command that identifies who is to make the call to remove individuals from the field. 
2. Name a designated weather watcher (A person who actively looks for the signs of threatening weather and notifies the chain of command if severe weather becomes dangerous). 
3. Have a means of monitoring local weather forecasts and warnings. 
4. Designate a safe shelter for each venue. See examples below. 
5. Use the Flash-to-Bang count to determine when to go to safety. By the time the flash-to-bang count approaches thirty seconds all individuals should be already inside a safe structure. See method of determining Flash-to-Bang count below. 
6. Once activities have been suspended, wait at least thirty minutes following the last sound of thunder or lightning flash prior to resuming an activity or returning outdoors. 
7. Avoid being the highest point in an open field, in contact with, or proximity to the highest point, as well as being on the open water. Do not take shelter under or near trees, flagpoles, or light poles. 
8. Assume that lightning safe position (crouched on the ground weight on the balls of the feet, feet together, head lowered, and ears covered) for individuals who feel their hair stand on end, skin tingle, or hear "crackling" noises. Do not lie flat on the ground. 
9. Observe the following basic first aid procedures in managing victims of a lightning strike:
o Activate local EMS 
o Lightning victims do not "carry a charge" and are safe to touch. 
o If necessary, move the victim with care to a safer location. 
o Evaluate airway, breathing, and circulation, and begin CPR if necessary. 
o Evaluate and treat for hypothermia, shock, fractures, and/or burns. 
10. All individuals have the right to leave an athletic site in order to seek a safe structure if the person feels in danger of impending lightning activity, without fear of repercussions or penalty from anyone. 


Safe Shelter: 
1. A safe location is any substantial, frequently inhabited building. The building should have four solid walls (not a dug out), electrical and telephone wiring, as well as plumbing, all of which aid in grounding a structure. 
2. The secondary choice for a safer location from the lightning hazard is a fully enclosed vehicle with a metal roof and the windows completely closed. It is important to not touch any part of the metal framework of the vehicle while inside it during ongoing thunderstorms. 
3. It is not safe to shower, bathe, or talk on landline phones while inside of a safe shelter during thunderstorms (cell phones are ok). 
To use the flash-to-bang method, begin counting when sighting a lightning flash. Counting is stopped when the associated bang (thunder) is heard. Divide this count by five to determine the distance to the lightning flash (in miles). For example, a flash-to-bang count of thirty seconds equates to a distance of six miles. Lightning has struck from as far away as 10 miles from the storm center. 
Postpone or suspend activity if a thunderstorm appears imminent before or during an activity or contest (irrespective of whether lightning is seen or thunder heard) until the hazard has passed. Signs of imminent thunderstorm activity are darkening clouds, high winds, and thunder or lightning activity. 

Tammy Carrell, SSISD Trainer
(903) 885-2158 ext 2290


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